Dr. Gunnar Spreen

University of Bremen
Institute of Environmental Physics
Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Building NW1, office N3330, phone +49-421-218-62158
email: gunnar.spreen(at)uni-bremen.de

ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0165-8448

Curriculum Vitae and Research Interests

Gunnar Spreen received his Diplom in physics (comparable M.Sc.) and Ph.D. in oceanography from the University of Hamburg, Germany, in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Thereafter, until July 2012, he worked as a Caltech Postdoctoral Scholar in the Climate, Ocean, and Solid Earth Science Section at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, USA. From August 2012 Gunnar Spreen was employed as staff research scientist for sea ice remote sensing at the Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway. Since August 2015 he is the head of the research group "Remote Sensing of Polar Regions" at the University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics.

His main research interests are satellite remote sensing of Polar Regions with focus on monitoring changes of sea ice (extent, mass, and dynamics) and on understanding underlying climate processes. Recent research focuses on the MOSAiC drift expedition (https://mosaic-expedition.org), which he joined for about half a year in 2019/2020 and serves as member on the project board. Conceptually, further work is based on analysis of sea ice drift in comparison to atmospheric reanalyses, estimating the sea ice export out of the Arctic Basin, freeboard data from altimetry, and improving sea ice concentration. Of central interest is the development of new methods to derive sea ice parameters like snow depth, lead fraction and thin ice thickness using passive and active microwave remote sensing. Satellite measurements are evaluated using ground-based and airborne field observation.


The following projects are currently worked on in the research group for Remote Sensing of Polar Regions.

  • (AC)3 – Arctic Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and Surface Processes, Feedback, and Mechanisms [DFG]
  • ArcTrain International Research Training Group [DFG]
  • CIMR – Copernicus Imaging Microwave Radiometern [ESA]

    • CIMR L2 PAD project
    • CIMR DEVALGO project GitHub website: https://github.com/CIMR-Algos
    • CIMRex – CIMR Airborne and MOSAiC Arctic campaigns [finished; 2018–2021]
    • CIMR Mission Performance Consolidation (CIMR-MRC) [finished; 2018–2019]
    • CIMR Mission Applications Study (CIMR-Apps) [finished; 2018–2019]

  • CRiceS – Climate relevant interactions and feedbacks: the key role of sea ice and snow in the polar and global climate system [EU H2020]
  • IceSense – Remote Sensing of the Seasonal Evolution of Climate-relevant Sea Ice Properties [BMBF: MOSAiC Project]
  • meereisportal.de – joined platform for sea ice information and data
  • MOSAiC – Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate
  • MOSAiCmicrowaveRS - Understanding snow and sea ice properties at microwave frequencies for remote sensing applications during MOSAiC [DFG]

Book Chapters

  • Spreen, G., & S. Kern (2017). Chapter 9 Methods of satellite remote sensing of sea ice. In D. N. Thomas (Ed.), Sea Ice (3rd Edition, pp. 239–260). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-1-118-77838-8doi:10.1002/9781118778371
  • Kern, S., L. Kaleschke, G. Spreen, R. Ezraty, F. Girard-Ardhuin, G. Heygster, S. Andersen, & R. Tonboe (2008). Sea Ice Parameters from Microwave Radiometry. In V. Barale & M. Gade (Eds.), Remote Sensing of the European Seas (pp. 239–250). Netherlands: Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-6771-6, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6772-3_18
  • Spreen, G., S. Kern, & D. Stammer (2006), Utilization of Multiple Satellite Sensors to Estimate Sea Ice Volume Flux through Fram Strait. In P. Wadhams & G. Amanatidis (Eds.), Arctic sea ice thickness: past, present & future, Climate Change and Natural Hazards series 10 (EUR 22416, pp. 176–192). Brussels, Belgium: European Commission. [Chapter (PDF-file)]

Peer-reviewed Publications

(Underlined mark supervised PhD, MSc, and postdoc's first-author publications)

  1. Rückert, J. E., A. Walbröl, N. Risse, P. Krobot, R. Haseneder-Lind, M. Mech, K. Ebell, & G. Spreen (2024, submitted). Measuring microwave sea ice and ocean brightness temperature and emissivity between 22 and 243 GHz by ship-based radiometers with rotatable mirrors. Submitted to Ann. Glaciol., 65(92).
  2. Lapere, R., L., Marelle, P. Rampal, L. Brodeau, C. Melsheimer, G. Spreen, & J. L. Thomas (2024, in review for TC). Modeling the contribution of leads to sea spray aerosol in the high Arctic. EGUsphere [preprint]. https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-1271
  3. Wendisch, M., S. Crewell, A. Ehrlich, A. Herber, B. Kirbus, C. Lüpkes, M. Mech, S. J. Abel, E. F. Akansu, F. Ament, C. Aubry, S. Becker, S. Borrmann, H. Bozem, M. Brückner, H.-C. Clemen, S. Dahlke, G. Dekoutsidis, J. Delanoë, E. De La Torre Castro, H. Dorff, R. Dupuy, O. Eppers, F. Ewald, G. George, I. V. Gorodetskaya, S. Grawe, S. Groß, J. Hartmann, S. Henning, L. Hirsch, E. Jäkel, P. Joppe, O. Jourdan, Z. Jurányi, M. Karalis, M. Kellermann, M. Klingebiel, M. Lonardi, J. Lucke, A. Luebke, M. Maahn, N. Maherndl, M. Maturilli, B. Mayer, J. Mayer, S. Mertes, J. Michaelis, M. Michalkov, G. Mioche, M. Moser, H. Müller, R. Neggers, D. Ori, D. Paul, F. Paulus, C. Pilz, F. Pithan, M. Pöhlker, V. Pörtge, M. Ringel, N. Risse, G. C. Roberts, S. Rosenburg, J. Röttenbacher, J. Rückert, M. Schäfer, J. Schäfer, V. Schemannn, I. Schirmacher, J. Schmidt, S. Schmidt, J. Schneider, S. Schnitt, A. Schwarz, H. Siebert, H. Sodemann, T. Sperzel, G. Spreen, B. Stevens, F. Stratmann, G. Svensson, C. Tatzelt, T. Tuch, T. Vihma, C. Voigt, L. Volkmer, A. Walbröl, A. Weber, B. Wehner, B. Wetzel, M. Wirth, & T. Zinner (2024, in review for ACP). Overview: Quasi-Lagrangian observations of Arctic air mass transformations – Introduction and initial results of the HALO–(AC)3 aircraft campaign. EGUsphere [preprint]. https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-783
  4. Risse, N., M. Mech, C. Prigent, G. Spreen, & S. Crewell (2024, in review for TC). Assessing the sea ice microwave emissivity up to submillimeter waves from airborne and satellite observations. EGUsphere [preprint]. https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-179
  5. Istomina, L., H. Niehaus, & G. Spreen (2023, in review for TC). Updated Arctic melt pond fraction dataset and trends 2002–2023 using ENVISAT and Sentinel-3 remote sensing data. The Cryosphere Discuss. [preprint]. doi:10.5194/tc-2023-142
  6. Tao, R., M. Nicolaus, C. Katlein, P. Anhaus, M. Hoppmann, G. Spreen, H. Niehaus, E. Jäkel, M. Wendisch, & C. Haas (2024). Seasonality of spectral radiative fluxes and optical properties of Arctic sea ice during the spring–summer transition. Elementa Sci. Anth., 12(1), 00130. https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.2023.00130 [Article (PDF file)]
  7. Rabe, B., C. J. Cox, Y.-C. Fang, H. Goessling, M. A. Granskog, M. Hoppmann, J. K Hutchings, T. Krumpen, I. Kuznetsov, R. Lei, T. Li, W. Maslowski, M. Nicolaus, D. Perovich, O. Persson, J. Regnery, I. Rigor, M. D. Shupe, V. Sokolov, G. Spreen, T. Stanton, D. M. Watkins, E. Blockley, H. J. Buenger, S. Cole, A. Fong, J. Haapala, C. Heuzé, C. J. M. Hoppe, M. Janout, A. Jutila, C. Katlein, R. Krishfield, L. Lin, V. Ludwig, A. Morgenstern, J. O’Brien, A. Quintanilla Zurita, T. Rackow, K. Riemann-Campe, J. Rohde, W. Shaw, V. Smolyanitsky, A. Solomon, A. Sperling, R. Tao, J. Toole, M. Tsamados, J. Zhu, & G. Zuo (2024). The MOSAiC Distributed Network: observing the coupled Arctic system with multidisciplinary, coordinated platforms. Elementa Sci. Anth., 12(1), 00103. https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.2023.00103 [Article (PDF file)]
  8. Kortum, K., S. Singha, G. Spreen, N. Hutter, A. Jutila, & C. Haas (2024). SAR deep learning sea ice retrieval trained with airborne laser scanner measurements from the MOSAiC expedition. The Cryosphere, 18, 2207–2222. https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-18-2207-2024 [Article (PDF file)]
  9. Wang, K., C. Wang, F. Dinessen, G. Spreen, R. Ricker, & X. Tian-Kunze (2024). Multisensor data fusion of operational sea ice observations. Front. Mar. Sci., 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2024.1366002 [Article (PDF file)]
  10. Thielke, L., G. Spreen, M. Huntemann, & D. Murashkin (2024). Spatio-temporal variability of small-scale leads based on helicopter maps of winter sea ice surface temperatures. Elementa Sci. Anth., 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.2023.00023 [Article (PDF file)]
  11. von Albedyll, L., S. Hendricks, N. Hutter, D. Murashkin, L. Kaleschke, S. Willmes, L. Thielke, X. Tian-Kunze, G. Spreen, & C. Haas (2024). Lead fractions from SAR-derived sea ice divergence during MOSAiC. The Cryosphere, 18, 1259–1285. https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-18-1259-2024 [Article (PDF file)]
  12. Jäkel, E., S. Becker, T. R. Sperzel, H. Niehaus, G. Spreen, R. Tao, M. Nicolaus, W. Dorn, A. Rinke, J. Brauchle, & M. Wendisch (2024). Observations and modeling of areal surface albedo and surface types in the Arctic. The Cryosphere, 18, 1185–1205. https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-18-1185-2024 [Article (PDF file)]
  13. Niehaus, H., L. Istomina, M. Nicolaus, R. Tao, A. Malinka, E. Zege, & G. Spreen (2024). Melt pond fractions on Arctic summer sea ice retrieved from Sentinel-3 satellite data with a constrained physical forward model. The Cryosphere, 18, 933–956. doi:10.5194/tc-18-933-2024 [Article (PDF file)]
  14. Rückert, J. E., P. Rostosky, M. Huntemann, D. Clemens-Sewall, K. Ebell, L. Kaleschke, J. Lemmetyinen, A. R. Macfarlane, R. Naderpour, J. Stroeve, A. Walbröl, & G. Spreen (2023). Sea ice concentration satellite retrievals influenced by surface changes due to warm air intrusions: A case study from the MOSAiC expedition. Elementa Sci. Anth., 11(1), 00039. doi:10.1525/elementa.2023.00039 [Article (PDF file)]
  15. Saavedra Garfias, P., H. Kalesse-Los, L. von Albedyll, H. Griesche, & G. Spreen (2023). Asymmetries in cloud microphysical properties ascribed to sea ice leads via water vapour transport in the central Arctic. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14521–14546. doi:10.5194/acp-23-14521-2023 [Article (PDF file)]
  16. Rückert, J. E., M. Huntemann, R. T. Tonboe, G. Spreen (2023). Modeling snow and ice microwave emissions in the Arctic for a multi-parameter retrieval of surface and atmospheric variables from microwave radiometer satellite data. Earth Space Sci., 10, e2023EA003177. doi:10.1029/2023EA003177 [Article (PDF file)]
  17. Willatt, R.,  J. C. Stroeve,  V. Nandan,  T. Newman,  R. Mallett,  S. Hendricks,  R. Ricker,  J. Mead,  P. Itkin,  R. Tonboe,  D. N. Wagner,  G. Spreen,  G. Liston,  M. Schneebeli,  D. Krampe,  M. Tsamados,  O. Demir,  J. Wilkinson,  M. Jaggi,  L. Zhou,  M. Huntemann,  I. A. Raphael,  A. Jutila,  & M. Oggier (2023). Retrieval of snow depth on Arctic sea ice from surface-based, polarimetric, dual-frequency radar altimetry. Geophys. Res. Lett., 50, e2023GL104461. doi:10.1029/2023GL104461 [Article (PDF file)]
  18. Mchedlishvili, A., C. Lüpkes, A. Petty, M. Tsamados, & G. Spreen (2023). New estimates of pan-Arctic sea ice–atmosphere neutral drag coefficients from ICESat-2 elevation data. The Cryosphere, 17, 4103–4131. doi:10.5194/tc-17-4103-2023 [Article (PDF file)]
  19. Linke, O., J. Quaas, F. Baumer, S. Becker, J. Chylik, S. Dahlke, A. Ehrlich, D. Handorf, C. Jacobi, H. Kalesse-Los, L. Lelli, S. Mehrdad, R. A. J. Neggers, J. Riebold, P. Saavedra Garfias, N. Schnierstein, M. D. Shupe, C. Smith, G. Spreen, B. Verneuil, K. S. Vinjamuri, M. Vountas, & M. Wendisch (2023). Constraints on simulated past Arctic amplification and lapse-rate feedback from observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9963–9992. doi:10.5194/acp-23-9963-2023 [Article (PDF file)]
  20. Sperzel, T., E. Jäkel, F. Pätzold, A. Lampert, H. Niehaus, G. Spreen, S. Rosenburg, G. Birnbaum, N. Neckel, & M. Wendisch (2023). Surface albedo measurements and surface type classification from helicopter-based observations during MOSAiC. Sci. Data, 10, 584. doi:10.1038/s41597-023-02492-6 [Article (PDF file)]
  21. Rostosky, P., & G. Spreen (2023). Relevance of warm air intrusions for Arctic satellite sea ice concentration time series. The Cryosphere, 17, 3867–3881. doi:10.5194/tc-17-3867-2023 [Article (PDF file)]
  22. Wang, Q., Q. Shu, S. Wang, A. Beszczynska-Moeller, S. Danilov, L. de Steur, T. W. N. Haine, M. Karcher, C. Lee, P. G. Myers, I. V. Polyakov, C. Provost, Ø. Skagseth, G. Spreen, & R. Woodgate (2023). A review of Arctic-Subarctic ocean linkages: past changes, mechanisms and future projections. Ocean-Land-Atmos. Res., 2, 0013. doi:10.34133/olar.0013 [Article (PDF file)]
  23. Nandan, V., R. Willatt, R. Mallett, J. Stroeve, T. Geldsetzer, R. Scharien, R. Tonboe, J. Yackel, J. Landy, D. Clemens-Sewall, A. Jutila, D. N. Wagner, D. Krampe, M. Huntemann, M. Mahmud, D. Jensen, T. Newman, S. Hendricks, G. Spreen, A. Macfarlane, M. Schneebeli, J. Mead, R. Ricker, M. Gallagher, C. Duguay, I. Raphael, C. Polashenski, M. Tsamados, I. Matero, & M. Hoppmann (2023). Wind redistribution of snow impacts the Ka- and Ku-band radar signatures of Arctic sea ice. The Cryosphere, 17, 2211–2229. doi:10.5194/tc-17-2211-2023 [Article (PDF file)]
  24. Aue, L., L. Röntgen, W. Dorn, P. Uotila, T. Vihma, G. Spreen, & A. Rinke (2023). Impact of three intense winter cyclones on the sea ice cover in the Barents Sea: A case study with a coupled regional climate model, Front. Earth Sci. Atmos., 11:1112467. doi:10.3389/feart.2023.1112467 [Article (PDF file)]
  25. Kirbus, B., S. Tiedeck, A. Camplani, J. Chylik, S. Crewell, S. Dahlke, K. Ebell, I. Gorodetskaya, H. Griesche, D. Handorf, I. Höschel, M. Lauer, R. Neggers, J. Rückert, M. D. Shupe, G. Spreen, A. Walbröl, M. Wendisch, & A. Rinke (2023). Surface impacts and associated mechanisms of a moisture intrusion into the Arctic observed in mid-April 2020 during MOSAiC. Front. Earth Sci. Atmos., 11:1147848. doi:10.3389/feart.2023.1147848 [Article (PDF file)]
  26. Sandven, S., G. Spreen, G. Heygster, F. Girard-Ardhuin, S. L. Farrell, W. Dierking, & R. A. Allard (2023). Sea ice remote sensing – recent developments in methods and climate data sets. Surv. Geophys.. doi:10.1007/s10712-023-09781-0 [Article (PDF file)]
  27. Guo, W., P. Itkin, S. Singha, A. P. Doulgeris, M. Johansson, & G. Spreen (2023). Sea ice classification of TerraSAR-X ScanSAR images for the MOSAiC expedition incorporating per-class incidence angle dependency of image texture. The Cryosphere, 17, 1279–1297. doi:10.5194/tc-17-1279-2023 [Article (PDF file)]
  28. Niehaus, H., G. Spreen, G. Birnbaum, L. Istomina, E. Jäkel, F. Linhardt, N. Neckel, M. Nicolaus, T. Sperzel, M. A. Webster, N. C. Wright, N. Fuchs, & R. Tao (2023). Sea Ice Melt Pond Fraction Derived From Sentinel-2 Data: Along the MOSAiC Drift and Arctic-Wide. Geophys. Res. Lett., 50(5), e2022GL102102. doi:10.1029/2022GL102102 [Article (PDF file)]
  29. Thielke, L., N. Fuchs, G. Spreen, B. Tremblay, G. Birnbaum, M. Huntemann, N. Hutter, P. Itkin, A. Jutila, & M. A. Webster (2023). Preconditioning of summer melt ponds from winter sea ice surface temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett., 50(4), e2022GL101493. doi:10.1029/2022GL101493 [Article (PDF file)]
  30. Wendisch, M., M. Brückner, S. Crewell, A. Ehrlich, J. Notholt, C. Lüpkes, A. Macke, J. P. Burrows, A. Rinke, J. Quaas, M. Maturilli, V. Schemann, M. D. Shupe, E. F. Akansu, C. Barrientos-Velasco, K. Bärfuss, A.-M. Blechschmidt, K. Block, I. Bougoudis, H. Bozem, C. Böckmann, A. Bracher, H. Bresson, L. Bretschneider, M. Buschmann, D. G. Chechin, J. Chylik, S. Dahlke, H. Deneke, K. Dethloff, T. Donth, W. Dorn, R. Dupuy, K. Ebell, U. Egerer, R. Engelmann, O. Eppers, R. Gerdes, R. Gierens, I. V. Gorodetskaya, M. Gottschalk, H. Griesche, V. M. Gryanik, D. Handorf, B. Harm-Altstädter, J. Hartmann, M. Hartmann, B. Heinold, A. Herber, H. Herrmann, G. Heygster, I. Höschel, Z. Hofmann, J. Hölemann, A. Hünerbein, S. Jafariserajehlou, E. Jäkel, C. Jacobi, M. Janout, F. Jansen, O. Jourdan, Z. Jurányi, H. Kalesse-Los, T. Kanzow, R. Käthner, L. L. Kliesch, M. Klingebiel, E. M. Knudsen, T. Kovács, W. Körtke, D. Krampe, J. Kretzschmar, D. Kreyling, B. Kulla, D. Kunkel, A. Lampert, M. Lauer, L. Lelli, A. von Lerber, O. Linke, U. Löhnert, M. Lonardi, S. N. Losa, M. Losch, M. Maahn, M. Mech, L. Mei, S. Mertes, E. Metzner, D. Mewes, J. Michaelis, P. G. Mioche, M. Moser, K. Nakoudi, R. Neggers, R. Neuber, T. Nomokonova, J. Oelker, I. Papakonstantinou-Presvelou, F. Pätzold, V. Pefanis, C. Pohl, M. van Pinxteren, A. Radovan, M. Rhein, M. Rex, A. Richter, N. Risse, C. Ritter, P. Rostosky, V. V. Rozanov, E. Ruiz Donoso, P. Saavedra-Garfias, M. Salzmann, J. Schacht, M. Schäfer, J. Schneider, N. Schnierstein, P. Seifert, S. Seo, H. Siebert, M. A. Soppa, G. Spreen, I. S. Stachlewska, J. Stapf, F. Stratmann, I. Tegen, C. Viceto, C. Voigt, M. Vountas, A. Walbröl, M. Walter, B. Wehner, H. Wex, S. Willmes, M. Zanatta, & S. Zeppenfeld (2023). Atmospheric and Surface Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms Determining Arctic Amplification: A Review of First Results and Prospects of the (AC)³ Project. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 104(1), E208–E242. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0218.1 [Article (PDF file)]
  31. Melsheimer, C., G. Spreen, Y. Ye, & M. Shokr (2023). First results of Antarctic sea ice type retrieval from active and passive microwave remote sensing data. The Cryosphere, 17, 105–126. doi:10.5194/tc-17-105-2023 [Article (PDF file)]
  32. Stroeve, J., V. Nandan, R. Willatt, R. Dadic, P. Rostosky, M. Gallagher, R. Mallett, A. Barrett, S. Hendricks, R. Tonboe, M. McCrystall, M. Serreze, L. Thielke, G. Spreen, T. Newman, J. Yackel, R. Ricker, M. Tsamados, A. Macfarlane, H.-R.. Hannula, & M. Schneebeli (2022). Rain on snow (ROS) understudied in sea ice remote sensing: a multi-sensor analysis of ROS during MOSAiC (Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate). The Cryosphere, 16, 4223–4250. doi:10.5194/tc-16-4223-2022 [Article (PDF file)]
  33. Gabarró, C., P. Fabregat, F. Hernández-Macià, R. Jove, J. Salvador, G. Spreen, L. Thielke, R. Dadic, M. Huntemann, N. Kolabutin, D. Nomura, H.-R. Hannula, & M. Schneebeli (2022). First results of the ARIEL L-band radiometer on the MOSAiC Arctic Expedition during the late summer and autumn period. Elementa Sci. Anth., 10(1). doi:10.1525/elementa.2022.00031 [Article (PDF file)]
  34. Lu, J., R. Scarlat, G. Heygster, & G. Spreen (2022). Reducing Weather Influences on an 89 GHz Sea Ice Concentration Algorithm in the Arctic Using Retrievals From an Optimal Estimation Method. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 127, e2019JC015912. doi:10.1029/2019JC015912 [Article (PDF file)]
  35. Thielke, L., M. Huntemann, S. Hendricks, A. Jutila, R. Ricker, & G. Spreen (2022). Sea ice surface temperatures from helicopter-borne thermal infrared imaging during the MOSAiC expedition. Sci. Data, 9, 364. doi:10.1038/s41597-022-01461-9 [Article (PDF file)]
  36. Shi, Q., J. Su, G. Spreen, & Q. Yang (2022). An Improved Sea-Ice Velocity Retrieval Algorithm Based On 89 GHz Brightness Temperature Satellite Data in the Fram Strait. Earth and Space Science, 9(6), e2021EA002170. doi:10.1029/2021EA002170 [Article (PDF file)]
  37. Rudjord, Ø., R. Solberg, G. Spreen, & S. Gerland (2022). Estimating thin ice thickness around Svalbard using MODIS satellite imagery. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography. doi:10.1080/04353676.2022.2070158
  38. Mchedlishvili, A., G. Spreen, C. Melsheimer, & M. Huntemann (2022). Weddell Sea polynya analysis using SMOS-SMAP apparent sea ice thickness retrieval. The Cryosphere, 16, 471–487. doi:10.5194/tc-16-471-2022 [Article (PDF file)]
  39. Rabe, B., , C. Heuzé, J. Regnery, Y. Aksenov, J. Allerholt, M. Athanase, Y. Bai, C. Basque, D. Bauch, T. M. Baumann, D. Chen, S. T. Cole, L. Craw, A. Davies, E. Damm, K. Dethloff, D. V. Divine, F. Doglioni, F. Ebert, Y.-C. Fang, I. Fer, A. A. Fong, R. Gradinger, M. A. Granskog, R. Graupner, C. Haas, H. He, Y. He, M. Hoppmann, M. Janout, D. Kadko, T. Kanzow, S. Karam, Y. Kawaguchi, Z. Koenig, B. Kong, R. A. Krishfield, T. Krumpen, D. Kuhlmey, I. Kuznetsov, M. Lan, G. Laukert, R. Lei, T. Li, S. Torres-Valdés, L. Lin, L. Lin, H. Liu, N. Liu, B. Loose, X. Ma, R. McKay, M. Mallet, R. D. C. Mallett, W. Maslowski, C. Mertens, V. Mohrholz, M. Muilwijk, M. Nicolaus, J. K. O'Brien, D. Perovich, J. Ren, M. Rex, N. Ribeiro, A. Rinke, J. Schaffer, I. Schuffenhauer, K. Schulz, M. D. Shupe, W. Shaw, V. Sokolov, A. Sommerfeld, G. Spreen, T. Stanton, M. Stephens, J. Su, N. Sukhikh, A. Sundfjord, K. Thomisch, S. Tippenhauer, J. M. Toole, M. Vredenborg, M. Walter, H. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Wang, M. Wendisch, J. Zhao, M. Zhou, & J. Zhu (2022). Overview of the MOSAiC expedition: Physical oceanography. Elementa Sci. Anth., 10(1), 00062. doi:10.1525/elementa.2021.00062 [Article (PDF file)]
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  48. Zúñiga, D., A. Sanchez-Vidal, M. M. Flexas, D. Carroll, M. M. Rufino, G. Spreen, A. Calafat, & F. Abrantes (2021). Sinking Diatom Assemblages as a Key Driver for Deep Carbon and Silicon Export in the Scotia Sea (Southern Ocean). Front. Earth Sci., 9:579198. doi:10.3389/feart.2021.579198 [Article (PDF file)]
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  52. Istomina, L., H. Marks, M. Huntemann, G. Heygster, & G. Spreen (2020). Improved cloud detection over sea ice and snow during Arctic summer using MERIS data. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6459–6472. doi:10.5194/amt-13-6459-2020 [Article (PDF file)]
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  69. Liu, J., Z. Chen, Y. Hu, Y. Zhang, Y. Ding, X. Cheng, Q. Yang, L. Nerger, G. Spreen, R. Horton, J. Inoue, C. Yang, M. Li, & M. Song (2019). Towards reliable Arctic sea ice prediction using multivariate data assimilation. Science Bulletin, 64, 63–72. doi:10.1016/j.scib.2018.11.018
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  74. Lu, J., G. Heygster, & G. Spreen (2018). Atmospheric Correction of Sea Ice Concentration Retrieval for 89 GHz AMSR-E Observations. IEEE J-STARS., 11(5), 1442–1457. doi:10.1109/JSTARS.2018.2805193
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  87. Ye, Y., M. Shokr, G. Heygster, & G. Spreen (2016). Improving Multiyear Ice Concentration Estimates with Ice Drift. Remote Sens., 8(5), 397. doi:10.3390/rs8050397 [Article (PDF-File)]
  88. Kaleschke, L., X. Tian-Kunze, N. Maaß, A. Beitsch, A. Wernecke, M. Miernecki, G. Müller, B. H. Fock, A. M. Gierisch, K. H. Schlünzen, T. Pohlmann, M. Dobrynin, S. Hendricks, J. Asseng, R. Gerdes, P. Jochmann, N. Reimer, J. Holfort, C. Melsheimer, G. Heygster, G. Spreen, S. Gerland, J. King, N. Skou, S. S. Søbjærg, C. Haas, F. Richter, & T. Casal (2016). SMOS sea ice product: Operational application and validation in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone. Remote Sens. Environ., 180, 264–273. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2016.03.009
  89. Krumpen, T., R. Gerdes, C. Haas, S. Hendricks, A. Herber, V. Selyuzhenok, L. Smedsrud, & G. Spreen (2016). Recent summer sea ice thickness surveys in the Fram Strait and associated ice volume fluxes. The Cryosphere, 10(2), 523–534. doi:10.5194/tc-10-523-2016 [Article (PDF-File)]
  90. Granskog, M. A., P. Assmy, S. Gerland, G. Spreen, H. Steen, & L. H. Smedsrud (2016). Arctic research on thin ice: Consequences of Arctic sea ice loss. Eos Trans. AGU, 97. doi:10.1029/2016EO044097. [Article (PDF-File)]
  91. Spolaor, A., T. Opel, J. R. McConnell, O. J. Maselli, G. Spreen, C. Varin, T. Kirchgeorg, D. Fritzsche, & P. Vallelonga (2016). Halogen-based reconstruction of Russian Arctic sea ice area from the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya). The Cryosphere, 10(1), 245–256. doi:10.5194/tc-10-245-2016 [Article (PDF-File)]
  92. Hansen, E., S. Gerland, K. V. Høyland, O. Pavlova, & G. Spreen (2015). Time variability in the annual cycle of sea ice thickness in the Transpolar Drift. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120(12), 8135–8150. doi:10.1002/2015JC011102 [Article (PDF-File)]
  93. Duarte, P., P. Assmy, H. Hop, G. Spreen, S. Gerland, & S. R. Hudson (2015). The importance of vertical resolution in sea ice algae production models. Journal of Marine Systems, 145, 69–90. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.12.004
  94. Haine, T. W. N., B. Curry, R. Gerdes, E. Hansen, M. Karcher, C. Lee, B. Rudels, G. Spreen, L. de Steur, K. D. Stewart, & R. Woodgate (2015). Arctic Freshwater Export: Status, Mechanisms, and Prospects. Global and Planetary Change, 125, 13–35. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.11.013
  95. Beckers, J. F., A. H. H. Renner, G. Spreen, S. Gerland, & C. Haas (2015). Sea-ice surface roughness estimates from airborne laser scanner and laser altimeter observations in Fram Strait and north of Svalbard. Ann. Glaciol., 56(69), 235–244. doi:10.3189/2015AoG69A717 [Article (PDF-File)]
  96. Kern, S., & G. Spreen (2015). Uncertainties in Antarctic Sea-Ice Thickness Retrieval from ICESat. Ann. Glaciol., 56(69), 107–119. doi:10.3189/2015AoG69A736 [Article (PDF-File)]
  97. Hansen, E., O-C. Ekeberg, S. Gerland, O. Pavlova, G. Spreen, & M. Tschudi (2014). Variability in categories of Arctic sea ice in Fram Strait. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119(10), 7175–7189. doi:10.1002/2014JC010048 [Article (PDF-File)]
  98. Renner, A. H. H., S. Gerland, C. Haas, G. Spreen, J. F. Beckers, E. Hansen, M. Nicolaus, H. Goodwin (2014). Evidence of Arctic sea ice thinning from direct observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41(14), 5029–5036. doi:10.1002/2014GL060369 [Article (PDF-file)]
  99. Cape, M. R., M. Vernet, M. Kahru, & G. Spreen (2014). Polynya dynamics drive primary production in the Larsen A and B embayments following ice shelf collapse. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119(1), 572–594. doi:10.1002/2013JC009441 [Article (PDF-file)]
  100. Assmy, P., J. K. Ehn, M. Fernández-Méndez, H. Hop, C. Katlein, A. Sundfjord, K. Bluhm, M. Daase, A. Engel, A. Fransson, M. A. Granskog, S. R. Hudson, S. Kristiansen, M. Nicolaus, I. Peeken, A. H. H. Renner, G. Spreen, A. Tatarek, & J. Wiktor (2013). Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting Arctic sea ice. PLoS ONE, 8(10), e76599. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076599 [Article (PDF-File)]
  101. Kwok, R., G. Spreen, & S. Pang (2013). Arctic sea ice circulation and drift speed: decadal trends and ocean currents. J. Geophys. Res., 118(5), 2408–2425. doi:10.1002/jgrc.20191 [Article (PDF-file)]
  102. Spreen, G., R. Kwok, & D. Menemenlis (2011). Trends in Arctic sea ice drift and role of wind forcing: 1992-2009. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L19501. doi:10.1029/2011GL048970 [Article (PDF-file)]
  103. Kern, S., L. Kaleschke, & G. Spreen (2010). Climatology of the Nordic (Irminger, Greenland, Barents, Kara, White/Pechora) Seas ice cover based on 85 GHz satellite microwave radiometry: 1992-2008. Tellus A, 62A, 411–434. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0870.2010.00457.x [Article (PDF-File)]
  104. Brümmer, B., G. Müller, C. Klepp, G. Spreen, R. Romeiser, & J. Horstmann (2010). Characteristics and impact of a gale-force storm field over the Norwegian Sea. Tellus A, 62A, 481–496. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0870.2010.00448.x [Article (PDF-file)]
  105. Spreen, G., S. Kern, D. Stammer, & E. Hansen (2009). Fram Strait sea ice volume export estimated between 2003 and 2008 from satellite data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L19502. doi:10.1029/2009GL039591 [Article (PDF-file)]
  106. Heygster, G., H. Wiebe, G. Spreen, & L. Kaleschke (2009). AMSR-E Geolocation and Validation of Sea Ice Concentrations Based on 89 GHz Data. Journal of the Remote Sensing Society of Japan, 29(1), 226–235. [Article (PDF-File)]
  107. Kern, S., M. Brath, R. Fontes, M. Gade, K.-W. Gurgel, L. Kaleschke, T. Schlick, G. Spreen, S. Schulz, A. Winderlich, & D. Stammer (2009). Multi3Scat – A helicopter-based Scatterometer for Snow Cover and Sea Ice Investigations. IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., 6(4), 703–707. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2009.2023823 [Article (PDF-file)]
  108. Spreen, G., L. Kaleschke, & G. Heygster (2008). Sea ice remote sensing using AMSR-E 89-GHz channels. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 113, C02S03. doi:10.1029/2005JC003384 [Article (PDF-file)]
  109. Brümmer, B., D. Schröder, G. Müller, G. Spreen, A. Jahnke-Bornemann, & J. Launiainen (2008). Impact of a Fram Strait cyclone on ice edge, drift, divergence and concentration: Possibilities and limits of an observational analysis. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 113, C12003. doi:10.1029/2007JC004149 [Article (PDF-file)]
  110. Haarpaintner, J., & G. Spreen (2007). Use of Enhanced-Resolution QuikSCAT/SeaWinds Data for Operational Ice Services and Climate Research: Sea Ice Edge, Type, Concentration, and Drift. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens., 45(10), 3131–3137. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2007.895419 [Article (PDF-file)]
  111. Kern, S., G. Spreen, L. Kaleschke, S. De La Rosa Höhn, & G. Heygster (2007). Polynya Signature Simulation Method polynya area in comparison to AMSR-E 89 GHz sea-ice concentrations in the Ross Sea and off the Adélie Coast, Antarctica, for 2002-05: first results. Ann. Glaciol., 46, 409–418. doi:10.3189/172756407782871585 [Article (PDF-file)]
  112. Spreen, G., S. Kern, D. Stammer, R. Forsberg, & J. Haarpaintner (2006). Satellite-based Estimates of Sea Ice Volume Flux through Fram Strait. Ann. Glaciol., 44, 321–328. doi:10.3189/172756406781811385 [Article (PDF-File)]
  113. Kern, S., Y. Chen, D. Stammer, & G. Spreen (2006). The Sea-Ice Compactness in the Greenland and Barents Sea during 1979-2003: Changes and Links to the Surface Air Flow. Ann. Glaciol., 44, 30–36. doi:10.3189/172756406781811808 [Article (PDF-File)]