Understanding snow and sea ice properties at microwave frequencies for remote sensing applications during MOSAiC (MOSAiCmicrowaveRS)

During the MOSAiC expedition in 2019-2020, many different active and passive microwave instruments were mounted on an ice floe, drifting an entire year through the Arctic sea ice. The time series of instrument data accompanied with various in situ measurements, will allow to improve our understanding of the interaction of microwaves with snow and sea ice. Similar sensors operating at microwave frequencies are available at different satellites allowing for a comparison. In particular, many high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements were acquired over the course of the expedition.

In this project we strive towards improving satellite retrieval algorithms for passive microwave observations and classification of ice types from SAR.

The project partners are University of Bremen and the German Aerospace Center (DLR).

MOSAiCmicrowaveRS is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): DGF GEPRIS project website

Project meetings

2020 2021 2022
22.6.2020 (online) 20.4.2021 (online) 12.1.2022 (online)
9.11.2020 (online) 6.7.2021 (online) 26.4.2022 (in person at MOSAiC workshop)
22.10.2021 (online)


  • Guo, W., P. Itkin, S. Singha, A. P. Doulgeris, M. Johansson, & G. Spreen (2023). Sea ice classification of TerraSAR-X ScanSAR images for the MOSAiC expedition incorporating per-class incidence angle dependency of image texture. The Cryosphere, 17, 1279–1297. doi:10.5194/tc-17-1279-2023 [Article (PDF file)]
  • Gabarró, C., P. Fabregat, F. Hernández-Macià, R. Jove, J. Salvador, G. Spreen, L. Thielke, R. Dadic, M. Huntemann, N. Kolabutin, D. Nomura, H.-R. Hannula, & M. Schneebeli (2022). First results of the ARIEL L-band radiometer on the MOSAiC Arctic Expedition during the late summer and autumn period. Elementa Sci. Anth., 10(1). doi:10.1525/elementa.2022.00031 [Article (PDF file)]
  • Zhang, Y., T. Zhu, G. Spreen, C. Melsheimer, M. Huntemann, N. Hughes, S. Zhang, & F. Li (2021, in review for TC). Sea ice and water classification on dual-polarized Sentinel-1 imagery during melting season. The Cryosphere Discuss. [preprint]. doi:10.5194/tc-2021-85
  • Demir, O., J. T. Johnson, K. C. Jezek, M. J. Andrews, K. Ayotte, G. Spreen, S. Hendricks, L. Kaleschke, M. Oggier, M. A. Granskog, A. Fong, M. Hoppmann, I. Matero, D. Scholz (2022). Measurements of 540-1740 MHz Brightness Temperatures of Sea Ice during the Winter of the MOSAiC Campaign. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens., 60(5302011), 1–11. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2021.3105360
  • Kortum, K., S. Singha, & G. Spreen (2022). Robust Multi-Seasonal Ice Classification from High-Resolution X-Band SAR. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2022.3144731
  • Mchedlishvili, A., G. Spreen, C. Melsheimer, & M. Huntemann (2022). Weddell Sea polynya analysis using SMOS-SMAP apparent sea ice thickness retrieval. The Cryosphere, 16, 471–487. doi:10.5194/tc-16-471-2022 [Article (PDF file)]
  • Nicolaus, M., D. K. Perovich, G. Spreen, M. A. Granskog, L. von Albedyll, M. Angelopoulos, P. Anhaus, S. Arndt, H. J. Belter, V. Bessonov, G. Birnbaum, J. Brauchle, R. Calmer, E. Cardellach, B. Cheng, D. Clemens-Sewall, R. Dadic, E. Damm, G. de Boer, O. Demir, K. Dethloff, D. V. Divine, A. A. Fong, S. Fons, M. M. Frey, N. Fuchs, C. Gabarró, S. Gerland, H. F. Goessling, R. Gradinger, J. Haapala, C. Haas, J. Hamilton, H.-R. Hannula, S. Hendricks, A. Herber, C. Heuzé, M. Hoppmann, K. V. Høyland, M. Huntemann, J. K. Hutchings, B. Hwang, P. Itkin, H.-W. Jacobi, M. Jaggi, A. Jutila, L. Kaleschke, C. Katlein, N. Kolabutin, D. Krampe, S. S. Kristensen, T. Krumpen, N. Kurtz, A. Lampert, B. A. Lange, R. Lei, B. Light, F. Linhardt, G. E. Liston, B. Loose, A. R. Macfarlane, M. Mahmud, I. O. Matero, S. Maus, A. Morgenstern, R. Naderpour, V. Nandan, A. Niubom, M. Oggier, N. Oppelt, F. Pätzold, C. Perron, T. Petrovsky, R. Pirazzini, C. Polashenski, B. Rabe, I. A. Raphael, J. Regnery, M. Rex, R. Ricker, K. Riemann-Campe, A. Rinke, J. Rohde, E. Salganik, R. K. Scharien, M. Schiller, M. Schneebeli, M. Semmling, E. Shimanchuk, M. D. Shupe, M. M. Smith, V. Smolyanitsky, V. Sokolov, T. Stanton, J. Stroeve, L. Thielke, A. Timofeeva, R. T. Tonboe, A. Tavri, M. Tsamados, D. N. Wagner, D. Watkins, M. Webster, & M. Wendisch (2022). Overview of the MOSAiC expedition: Snow and sea ice. Elementa Sci. Anth., 10(1), 000046. doi:10.1525/elementa.2021.000046 [Article (PDF file)]
  • Paul, S., & M. Huntemann (2021). Improved machine-learning-based open-water–sea-ice–cloud discrimination over wintertime Antarctic sea ice using MODIS thermal-infrared imagery. The Cryosphere, 15, 1551–1565. doi:10.5194/tc-15-1551-2021